Home Technology What is Battery Technology? Basics of electric vehicle battery

What is Battery Technology? Basics of electric vehicle battery

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Battery

A battery is a storage device to store electricity. It consists of one or several electrochemical cells depending on their characteristics. Lithium is the main component of modern-day batteries. Charges can be stored in a lithium battery using chemical reactions. Two electrodes are found in a battery: Anode and Cathode. The Charge is transferred from one electrode to the other during charging. The electrode that charges leave, or Cathode, is called Charge (positively energized), while the electrode where charges are deposited (negatively energized).

This movement stores the charges in the form of potential energy close to the anode. The backward movement between anode and Cathode can also be used to withdraw power. The whole process can be repeated in the presence of an electrolyte or conductive media that must be replenished at regular intervals if necessary. Each battery has limited charging retentivity proportional to how often it is charged or discharged. Different companies use different Lithium isotopes, which can result in a variation in the Charge’s life expectancy. The battery’s charge density has increased tremendously with technological advancements. We need to know the history of batteries, from their invention to their evolution.

Evolution Battery

Since 1800, the source of electricity through chemical reaction has been the beginning of the evolution in battery technology. As we use fuel to power our cars, we must refuel them frequently. The electrolyte in the battery was also the fuel. The traditional battery concept is very different from modern batteries. They couldn’t charge, and the chemical reaction must be stopped before the electrolyte or electrodes could be recharged.

The battery is a concept.

The term battery was first introduced in 1748. However, its use was entirely different. Benjamin Franklin tried several capacitors with a metal top and glass cover. They were able to retain power while being discharged quickly. This was the first time that electricity could be stored, and it could also be discharged with some losses.

Inventions of Battery

After a series of experiments, Luigi Galvani, followed by Alessandro Volta, discovered a battery that could store energy. However, it was not practical because it was non-chargeable. The electrolyte solution mixture of zinc and copper rods with the brine water. This was the first of its kind, allowing a single cell to store 1.1 volts. Although the combination of these cells can produce a stable electric current, the voltage transmitted was too low because of high internal resistance. The internal resistance was caused due to Zinc corrosion, which was ultimately the source of the electrochemical reaction. This method is not practical but has provided pathways to future battery technology.

The invention of a Rechargeable Battery

Gaston Plante, a French physicist, developed the first rechargeable battery in 1849. The chemical reaction in which the lead from both rods reacts with electrolyte results in lead sulfate. The anode’s lead reacts with sulfuric acid to release electrons. The lead from the Cathode is charged and forms lead sulfate. This leads to a reverse reaction that stores energy as potential energy. These batteries were cost-effective and had a low internal resistance. They can also be used to power multiple devices with one call. The batteries provided a steady voltage supply and were therefore used to power early electric cars. The propulsion engine had outperformed the segment due to its bulky design, longer charging times, and limited range.

Flexible battery technology

In 1985, Asahi Chemical’s research team developed a stable version for the rechargeable Lithium-Ion battery. Sony Electronics later commercialized this in 1991. The Lithium-Ion battery uses graphite anode and Lithium cathode. Between them is a solid electrolyte of polyacene. The metal box that sealed it must be small but flexible. Asahi Kasei, Sony electronics and others developed a gel-like Polymer in 1997 that could be used to make flexible batteries in different sizes and shapes. The exceptional quality of Lithium Polymer’s charge enduring capacity is why its quality remains unchanged, even after the last cycle count.

Conclusion

The battery technology has undergone multiple phases of transition, from the electricity-producing device to the electricity storage device. Afterward, it transitioned from Low power battery to a high-power battery. Then it transitioned from a bulky wet Lead Acid battery to a small dry Lithium-Ion battery. Then it transitioned from a Small dry Lithium Ion pack to a Flexible dry Lithium Polymer pack. These transitions clearly state and direct the practical applicability of this technology.

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